CONSUMERS’ ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR AND POWER UTILITIES’ PREFERENCES
The electricity market in Japan was liberalized in 2016. Consequently, consumers in Japan have options to choose preferred electricity retailers. Some electricity retailers specialize for environmentally friendly renewable energy (RE). RE is regarded as reliable and safe after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In addition, in the 5th Basic Energy Plan, the Japanese government attempts to raise RE for 22 to 24 % of all energy sources by 2030. However, supplies from RE destabilizes the grid operations. Nuclear power plays significant role in the smooth grid operations. The Japanese government regards nuclear power as one of the substantial energy sources due to Japan's energy policy. Japanese Power utilities also attempt to supply electricity from nuclear power plants. There are some benefits, economically and technologically. However, nuclear power has negative impacts on reliable and safe. In the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) survey, the respondents put reliable and safe as the highest priority. Nuclear power is not acceptable to consumers. This implies gaps between demand and supply sides. This paper examines the preferences on both sides and clarifies the gaps. In addition, some possible solutions, e.g., distributed micro-grids and batteries, could be narrow the gaps.
Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. (2019). Nattoku Saisei-Kanou Enerugi (in Japanese). Retrieved from http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/saving_and_new/ saiene/statistics/index.html (accessed on 1 September 2019).
Chapman, A., & Itaoka, K. (2018). Curiosity, economic and environmental reasoning: Public perceptions of liberalization and renewable energy transition in Japan. Energy Research & Social Science, 37, 102-110.
Chen, W. M., Kim, H., & Yamaguchi, H. (2014). Renewable energy in eastern Asia: Renewable energy policy review and comparative SWOT analysis for promoting renewable energy in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Energy Policy, 74, 319-329.
Duffield, J. S., & Woodall, B. (2011). Japan's new basic energy plan. Energy Policy, 39(6), 3741-3749.
Energy Information Center. ranking of electricity retailers for sales quantity of electricity as May 2019 in Japanese. Retrieved from https://pps-net.org/ppscompany?ppskey=pps195 (accessed on 25 September 2019).
Faber, I., Lane, W., Pak, W., Prakel, M., Rocha, C., & Farr, J. V. (2014). Micro-energy markets: The role of a consumer preference pricing strategy on microgrid energy investment. Energy, 74, 567-575.
Fukushima Prefecture. Hinan Kuiki no Jokyo,hisai-sha shien (Status of evacuating areas and supports of victims in Japanese). Retrieved from https://www.pref.fukushima.lg.jp/site/ portal/list271.html (accessed on 25 September 2019).
Hong, S., Bradshaw, C. J., & Brook, B. W. (2013). Evaluating options for the future energy mix of Japan after the Fukushima nuclear crisis. Energy Policy, 56, 418-424.
Ito, Y. (2015). A Brief History of Measures to Support Renewable Energy. Tokyo: The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan.
Kim, Y., Kim, M., & Kim, W. (2013). Effect of the Fukushima nuclear disaster on global public acceptance of nuclear energy. Energy Policy, 61, 822-828.
Kyushu Electric Power Company (2017). Current state of the renewable energy in Kyushu electric power and our future plan. Retrieved from https://www.nedo.go.jp/content/ 100866174.pdf (accessed on 8 September 2019).
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2018). The 5th Strategic Energy Plan. Retrieved from https://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/en/category/others/basic_plan/5th/pdf/strategic_ energy_plan.pdf (accessed on 20 September 2019).
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, (2019). White paper. Retrieved from https://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/about/whitepaper/2019pdf/ (accessed on 2 August 2019).
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. (2018a) Denryoku/gasu kouri jiyuuka noshinchokujoukyou ni tsuite (Progress of full liberalization of electricity and gas retail in Japan). Retrieved from https://www.meti.go.jp/shingikai/enecho/denryoku_gas/ denryoku_gas/pdf/ 014_04_00.pdf (accessed on 2 September 2019).
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. (2018b) Increase of GHG emission in Japanese, https://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/about/pamphlet/energy2018/html/003/
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. (2019). List of electricity retailers. Retrieved from https://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/electricity_and_gas/electric/summary/retailers_list/ (accessed on 1 September 2019).
Ohno K. (2006). The economic development of Japan: The path travelled by Japan as a developing county. GRIPS development forum. Retrieved from http://www.grips.ac.jp/forum/pdf06/EDJ.pdf (accessed on 6 August 2019).
Shinkawa T. (2018) Electricity system and market in Japan. Retrieved from https://www.emsc.meti.go.jp/english/info/public/pdf/180122.pdf (accessed on 2 September 2019).
Takano H., Inui A., Kato C., & Sakai K. (2018). Opinion determination process in the pros or cons of restart of nuclear power plants - Citizenship education through controversial issues- (in Japanese), People & Environment, 44(3), 18-28.
Tsujikawa, N., Tsuchida, S., & Shiotani, T. (2016). Changes in the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power generation in Japan since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Risk analysis, 36(1), 98-113.
Vivoda, V. (2012). Japan’s energy security predicament post-Fukushima. Energy Policy, 46, 135-143.
Copyright (c) 2020 SSBRN
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions of Publication
1. As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
- make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use;
- make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g. via an e-mail list or list server);
- present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such meeting;
- for your employer, if the article is a ‘work for hire’, made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g. training);
- retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the article;
- include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially);
- use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal); and prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal;
- may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the article, material extracted from the article, or derivative works for the author’s personal use or for company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies RBAOS endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
- All copies, print or electronic, or other use of the paper or article must include the appropriate bibliographic citation for the article’s publication in the journal.
2. Requests from third parties
Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the article in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use. Requests for all uses not included above, including the authorization of third parties to reproduce or otherwise use all or part of the article (including figures and tables), should be referred to RBAOS.
3. Author Online Use
- Personal Servers. Authors and/or their employers shall have the right to post the accepted version of articles pre-print version of the article, or revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on their own personal servers or the servers of their institutions or employers without permission from RBAOS, provided that the posted version includes a prominently displayed RBAOScopyright notice and, when published, a full citation to the original publication, including a link to the article abstract in the journal homepage. Authors shall not post the final, published versions of their papers;
- Classroom or Internal Training Use. An author is expressly permitted to post any portion of the accepted version of his/her own articles on the author’s personal web site or the servers of the author’s institution or company in connection with the author’s teaching, training, or work responsibilities, provided that the appropriate copyright, credit, and reuse notices appear prominently with the posted material. Examples of permitted uses are lecture materials, course packs, e-reserves, conference presentations, or in-house training courses;
- Electronic Preprints. Before submitting an article to an RBAOS, authors frequently post their manuscripts to their own web site, their employer’s site, or to another server that invites constructive comment from colleagues. Upon submission of an article to RBAOS, an author is required to transfer copyright in the article to RBAOS, and the author must update any previously posted version of the article with a prominently displayed RBAOS copyright notice. Upon publication of an article by the RBAOS, the author must replace any previously posted electronic versions of the article with either (1) the full citation to the work with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or link to the article abstract in RBAOS homepage, or (2) the accepted version only (not the final, published version), including the RBAOS copyright notice and full citation, with a link to the final, published article in journal homepage.
4. Articles in Press (AiP) service
RBAOS may choose to publish an abstract or portions of the paper before we publish it in the journal. Please contact our Production department immediately if you do not want us to make any such prior publication for any reason, including disclosure of a patentable invention.
5. Author/Employer Rights
If you are employed and prepared the article on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the article belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, RBAOS assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
6. Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of SSBRN to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of the SSBRN, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others. SSBRN distributes its technical publications throughout the world and does so by various means such as hard copy, microfiche, microfilm, and electronic media. It also abstracts and may translate its publications, and articles contained therein, for inclusion in various compendiums, collective works, databases and similar publications